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[Table] I'm Jeff Galak, Professor of Marketing & Social and Decision Science at Carnegie Mellon University. I have published dozens of academic papers on decision making, consumer behavior, and more. I have also recently launched a new YouTube channel called Data Demystified. AMA! (pt 2/3)
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|Hi Jeff, thanks for doing this AMA! 1. As you said, studies have shown that relationships show the strongest correlation to happiness. Do you think people can be happy from “one” good relationship, maybe one with a loved one - or do we need multiple relationships to be happy? Or does this depend on the person?||Yes. The evidence is clear here. Few amazing relationship are far more beneficial than many shallow ones.|
|2. I’m a lawyer - how do you think data can benefit the legal profession, and how can it benefit me (as an individual)?||An understanding of statistics and probability has a huge role in the legal profession. I don't know what type of law you practice, but plenty of civil litigation between firms relies on data to support expert testimony. Lawyers, juries and judges largely lack the intuition and knowledge they need to interpret results of such expert testimony. You personally...think of every time you ever see a data point (political polls, stock prices, product prices/attributes, weather forecasts, etc...). Those all have some form of data and/or statistics in them whether you realize or not. Understanding data very broadly would help you engage with all of that more richly.|
|3. What’s the one thing we should consider when making decisions, that we don’t consider too much?||Most decisions don't matter all that much. We spend a lot of time worrying about mundane decisions and shouldn't!|
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|Haha I love the answer to Q3. :) It’s honestly refreshing to know that, thank you. Are there any decisions that do matter?||Thanks! And, of course. Who you date/marry matters a LOT. Where you live matters a lot. Whether to have children or not matters a lot. I think you get the idea. What doesn't matter is which smartphone you buy, whether you get Italian or Chinese for dinner, or whether you watch this terrible Netflix movie or that one :)|
|Might be a little late but worth a try. Someone asked about loot boxes in video games, I'm fascinated by the psychology and marketing ploys that manages to constantly get people to buy the product despite the lack of positive reinforcement in the end result (as you know the items that are mostly desired tend to have a 1% or less chance). Right now a game I frequent has discovered through their research that losing increases more playing. They've used this information to artificially alter a player's matches to increase the likelihood of defeat. Despite the amount of frustration this causes a player, when presented with this information and proof (the official patent practically verbatim says this in the abstract itself), it doesn't seem to change their desire to play. Are habitual behaviors that much stronger than removing frustration? This is not something like having a messy room where the mess may not bother the self, thus the cleaning doesn't really remove any undesired feelings. My real question though is what are some concepts, theories, etc. that are employed by this gaming companies to play on the psychology of their players especially with monetization? I know of concepts like anchoring, conditioning, sunk cost fallacy, loss aversion to name a few but have no idea where I could find more. Another thing that's pretty fascinating, games these days are designed where at least 5 years worth of basic content is stripped from the base game and drip fed for years to come at a price. Even with evidence from predecessor games that had these features in their base game, players rejoice at a company releasing it two years later in the new game for a price. That's fascinating!||The idea of forcing a loss is really intersting. Would you mind posting which game that is and where the patent filing is? I'm quite curious. The idea does make sense though...if the game can get people hooked on the mechanics and winning is the ultimate goal, then by increasing the odds of losing, they keep you hooked for longer. As in, if you win, you're done and more on to something else. But if you keep loosing, there's reason to stick around.|
|And I think you've covered the bulk of the "tricks" they use. The biggest one, by far, is the constant reinforcement in the form of points, awards, achievements, etc... all that have no real value. People like getting positive reinforcement and it motivates them to stick around. Imagine the alternative: a game where you never get feedback on your progress...that's a hard game to stay engaged with.|
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|Hello sir. Hope you and your family is doing well in this pandemic. (1) I have a couple of questions. How does it feel to be a long term professor at a prestigious institution as Carnegie Mellon? How do you think this has prepared you for being an optimal source of knowledge in your field?||Thanks for your questions!|
|Like with any job, there are ups and downs. I LOVE academia. I have the freedom to ask questions of the world that interest me and the tools and resources to answer those questions. That's truly amazing. CMU has provided many opportunities in the form of research support and access to resources. I also have amazing colleagues in the Center for Behavioral and Decision Research who motivate me to do great work. But like anything, there are cons. There is a lot of politics within academia and I can't stand any of it. It's impossible to avoid and makes some days unenjoyable. On the whole, I love my job.|
|(2) According to you how would companies which are currently surviving this crisis be able to focus on making a sustainable income as well as providing it's workers a pension to work? A purely subjective opinion.||Wow, that's a big question and the answer greatly depends on the company. If you're Apple, I'm sure the employees will be fine. If you're a small business like a restaurant, that's a whole other issue. I hope that governments around the world will provide aid to businesses that are struggling, but with the current administration in the US, I'm skeptical much will happen.|
|(3) How would this crisis as whole impact students from around the globe i.e. Students(domestic and international) who are both in the process of applying as well as those who are going to apply in the next year or two?|
|(4) What according to you is the key to happiness and Do you consider gift-giving for moral relief(giving gifts to atone for guilt) as not counting as much as giving for the sake of giving? Thank you so much. Have a great day!!||All research points to relationships being the key to happiness. Strong and close relationships are the number one predictor of overall happiness and well being. Cultivate them.|
|Gift giving has MANY motives. Sometimes it's just to make someone else happy, sometimes it's to fulfill an obligation. Sometimes it's to make yourself feel good about yourself. Those motives influence the types of gifts you give and the utility they provide the recipient (and giver). They are all, however, gifts.|
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|Well...I agree with you there! A gift is a gift! No matter the cause of giving. I couldn't help but notice that you didn't answer the third question(probably because of my awful formatting). As a future applicant I'd really appreciate it. Thank you!||Sorry, let me try again. When you say "not counting as much" that can be from the giver's or recipients' perspective. For the giver, if they internalize the gift as some kind of penance for a bad act, then sure, it counts. For the recipient, they probably have no idea what drives the giver and as long as the gift is minimally acceptable, they will be happy with it. Does that help?|
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|Sorry I meant the third question. Autocorrect 😅. THIRD. My apologies||Sorry, totally missed that one somehow! For ugrad and MBA int'l students (I'm at the business school) the biggest hurdle will be visas for entry to the US. I have absolutely no idea how that will play out. The current administration is making it very difficult for int'l students to get entry visas, so unless they change their policies (or are voted out in Nov), that's going to be a real challenge. For domestic students, if anything, they'll have an easier time getting into programs because of the decrease in int'l applicants (less competition).|
|For PhD students, there is a different and bigger problem: what happens when they graduate. Right now, many (most) universities have hiring freezes. That means that the students who are graduating now are completely screwed. But that also means that next year (assuming the pandemic is gone and schools are hiring again), there will be double competition for academic jobs (those who are graduating on time and those who couldn't get a job this year b/c no one is hiring). That will then cascade into the next year. I suspect it'll take 5 or so years before the academic job market will be back to some sense of normal|
|[deleted]||Oh god, if you want to have impact, DO NOT go into academia. Go be a social worker. Or a teacher. Or work for a non-profit. Academics, with very few exceptions, actually change the world in any way. Most just sit in their offices thinking highly of themselves. The way to actually have impact is to apply your research somehow. That could be consulting, educating others, or writing for a wide audience (i.e. not academic journals).|
|More generally, you are right to be worried. The academic job market is going to be a disaster for the next few years. There is almost nothing to be done about that. Even the start PhD students are going to struggle. It sucks.|
|So what can you do? If you really want to do research (which, to be clear, is awesome and can be really rewarding), look for companies like Google that have "People analytics" (that's their version of HR) and do research internally. Or find a boutique consulting firm that focuses on behavioral science (BEESY is one, Ipsos has a Behavioral Science dept, etc...)|
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|Hi Jeff! I’ve always been interested in data analysis as a career but always feel lost whenever trying to path out an appropriate direction to become something like a data scientist or a researcher. I have 2 questions around data that I was hoping you could provide some insight on. 1) I would imagine that research papers require an extensive amount of data (at least I hope they do) to make inferences. My question is what is involved in gathering all of this data to test a theory/hypothesis?||Highly varied. Almost all the work I do involves primary data collection. As in, I conduct experiments with human subjects. Other research uses archival data like sales of products or behavior on a website. Depending on what you want to answer, you will follow different approaches.|
|2) I see that your YouTube Channel is about the intuition of data but will you also have videos regarding those fundamentals behind the analysis (regression analysis, etc.)? If not do you have any helpful resources where one could develop these analytical fundamentals?||I will, but the goal is intuition first. Other resources: coursera has fantastic data science courses. I recommend them quite a bit!|
|Why don't you use your powers for good?||I try to! I sit on the board of a large local non-profit and give them as much advice on this stuff as I can. I also do some pro bono consulting for non-profits. It's not enough, but I try.|
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|Good Job, I'm currently watching Century Of the Self, and it's put a bit of bad taste in my mouth for "marketing"||"Marketing" can be very evil. No doubt about it. I try to stay far away from that side of things as possible.|
|If you had a grand message to the world In The interest of happiness, young and old poor or rich what would you relay?||Wow...way to be me on the spot! JK|
|I'd probably say that we should spend more time focusing on developing strong relationships than we do right now. We're all very caught up in getting better at something or getting more stuff, but research tells us time and time again that enduring happiness comes from the people we care about.|
|Have you done any research on consumer profiles based on political leanings? Do conservatives or liberals have different buying habits? In general, what are some of the best insights you’ve found in your research?||I haven't looked at purchasing behavior based on political ideology. One that I have looked at is how political partisans respond to political lies. In short, Republicans and Democrats are fast to excuse lies from politicians within their own political party...but mostly if those lies are policy oriented. If they are personal lies (e.g. I'm awesome because I can bench press 10000lbs), most people tend to find those lies unacceptable. And I'm sure people will be quick to say that Republicans are more willing to excuse lies than Democrats and that's MOSTLY not true based on the data I have.|
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|That seems to contradict the most prominent Republican: Donald Trump who famously started his presidency by lying about his inauguration attendance. Not trying to pick a political fight mind you, but the whole “personal lies” thing doesn’t seem to apply there.||Of course, you're right. Trump is the exception to everything, this research likely as well. Our work tries hard to avoid anything to do with Trump b/c he really is an exception in many ways. But even for Trump, our work suggests that Republican voters are more likely to excuse lies of his that support policy position than just prop him up somehow. Ultimately, though, yes, Trump break a lot of research...and a lot of other things too!|
|Hello, and thanks for doing this. I just have one question: ¿What would you say is the best way to make a costumer profile on young internet users? Like for a company that sells educational textbooks transforming into a company that has an educational streaming plataform where students receive the information true a videogame format. Sorry if I'm not clear enough, english is not my first language.||I teach Marketing Research and get this type of question a lot. The truth is that without resources (e.g. money), doing something like this is hard. If you have a budget, I would hire a reputable consulting firm that specializes in online marketing and they will guide you with your specific application. Good luck!|
|What are your thoughts on the field of behavioral economics and how it relates to decision making?||Are you looking to get me in trouble, b/c that's what's gonna happen here. Behavioral economics has its place, for sure. Let's decompose that a bit, though. There's behavioral and there's experimental.|
|Experimental I will admit, I am not a huge fan of. The experiments they run tend to be incredibly artificial, making their insights less than a great reflection of reality. The concepts are often just rehashes of social psychology for decades past, but with econ'y terms tagged on. And there is very much a holier-than-thou attitude about the discipline.|
|Behavioral, on the other hand, uses concepts in economics to explain behavioral phenomena more generally. Sometimes that's with experiments, but more often it's with real world data. I'm a big fan of when this is done well. Plenty of synergies between what they do and what decision making researchers and psychological researchers like me do.|
|Hi Jeff! Have you ever found in your research, results that were opposite to your initial hypothesis? If so, what was the most interesting time? Thanks!||Not quite opposite, but we'll go with it. A while back a very famous psychologist published a paper "proving" ESP existed. I don't believe in ESP, but I thought it would be awesome if this psychologist were right. As in, it would be pretty cool if ESP were real. So I bet a colleague that we could replicate that original results. About a year later that colleague and I (and two other colleagues) published a paper that basically shut down all belief that the original finding of ESP was true. I happily lost that bet.|
|As a food service employee I am trying to figure out what’s next in the business post COVID-19. Do you have any thoughts on creative ways to grow business right now beyond offering curbside and delivery?||Ditch the restaurant entirely. It's not a new model, but it should be bigger than it is. If I'm going to order deliver, why do I care what your restaurant looks like. Go rent some space in a commercial kitchen and make me a yummy meal that arrives at my door. There's definitely more of this these days, but I'm still amazed at the persistence of physical restaurants in so many cases. There's an amazing Chinese food place near me that doesn't even have seating, just a counter. The issue is that they are paying top dollar for rent on that space (it's in a high cost area) when all their business is takeout/delivery. Why not ditch the high rent and keep most of the business? Anyway, that's where I see this going.|
|Where do you think the culture is heading to? And, as the amount of people with depression increases and the majority of jobs get automated, would this have an impact on the economy? people without jobs become unhappy.||Wow, that is WAY outside my expertise. Culture is highly fluid and we basically have no idea what will come next. (as an aside, if you can predict the next cultural change, let me know and we'll make billions!). So I have no clue where culture is going.|
|As for depression, that's a big issue and could be on the rise due to pandemic loneliness. Clinical psychologists will have their hands full for a while. I just hope people seek the help they need.|
|And as for automation, yes, that will change the economy as it has for decades now. How will gov'ts respond? I don't know. I hope we consider things like a universal basic income to help people avoid poverty. After that, it's anyone's guess.|
|Hi Professor, Thanks for doing this Ama! I'm currently getting an MBA in marketing and have been working on a few research papers focusing on the change of buying habits and the permanence of covid related purchasing behavior. Do you think consumers will continue to buy as they have over the past 6 months or is the uptick in online and delivery services temperary, particularly grocery delivery?||95% temporary. People like to go out and do things. Once the pandemic ends we'll be back to business as usual.|
|How do you feel about the way research papers are published? How has your school accommodated international students during the pandemic?||Papers: lots of ways to answer this. I'll focus on open-access. I can't stand that papers that I work on, which are reviewed by referrees who don't get paid, edited by editors who don't get paid, are then profitted off of by private publishers who keep science from the public. That is insane. I strongly support open-access journals like PLOS ONE (where I am an editor). That said, the "private" journals are still the most prestigious in my field and if I want to advance in my career and make sure that my PhD students advance as well, I'm stuck submitting papers to them. It sucks.|
|Intl Students: I believe all classes must be accessible via remote learning. Even if they are held in person (few are), they need to stream the class to students who can't physically attend.|
|Hey Professor Galak! Thank you so much for doing this. I have always been fascinated by every topic that you just mentioned and in fact I have just recently presented my master thesis entitled "The Hedonic Stigma: How the consumer’s memory seeks shelter from hedonism in utilitarianism". Since I am still curious about a lot of things regarding the research I did and consumer behavior in general... Do you recommend any book that really made an impact in you or changed the way you see these complex topics? Thank you so much in advance. P.S. : By the way I just subscribed to your channel, best of luck!||First, thank you! There is one book I have in mind and I can't think of the title at all. It's in my office on campus which I can't currently access thanks to Covid. It's a short book with a blue cover (not helpful, I know). It's about social psychology and had a lengthy discussion on pluralistic ignorance (one of my all time favorite topics in psychology). I remember that was the first book my advisor in grad school had me read and it changed the way I looked at people. Maybe someone on here knows what I'm talking about. The book was profound to me because it made me realize the interconnection between people and how others influence our decisions and preferences.|
|I don't actually plan to set foot on campus this semester so I can't even promise to get the book and tell you anytime soon. But if you can remember, ping me in like 3 months and I'll get it for you!|
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|Thank you so much for your time! Hope I remember to talk to you again so that I can find that misterious book! Stay safe!||If I think of it, I promise to send you a PM!|
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|This sounds like it might be "How We Know What isn't So" by Thomas Gilovich.||It's not, but great book and Tom is awesome. I've known him for years and aside from being an amazing psychologist he's just a super nice guy.|
|Hi Jeff! I think I’m too late but had one question. Without giving away my identity, my father is a long time professor of marketing and consumer behavior at a university. I’m sure you know each other or of each other in what is a relatively small field. What do you think about this crisis around replicating results? My father (as he nears retirement from teaching) recently has questioned so many of the studies he taught his students for years. Feels like so many of the surprising results that are taught are surprising because they’re not actually accurate. How can the field (and many other social science fields) fight the urge to look for surprising, counterintuitive results and still remain interesting and relevant?||Your father is right to be concerned. I've been part of the Open Science movement as well as took part in a major replication effort showing that most studies don't replicate. It's a huge problem, but it's getting better. Journals are starting requiring authors to submit materials, data, code, and make statements declaring use of good research practices...universities are being much more careful in their promotion processes when evaluating faculty...and the tide is starting to shift away from sloppy and sexy research towards more rigorous work. So yes, a lot of the really flashy stuff is questionable, but almost all research isn't that flashy. I worry a lot, but I do think things are improving. Say hi to your dad if he knows me :)|
|Hi Jeff, Economics undergraduate here, I feel like in a lot of ways your work is very intertwined with what research has been coming out of the "behavioral econ" field in the past few decades. In your view, can controlled experiments in researching human psychology/preferences/interaction provide researchers with meaningful data? If so, what needs to be done to make sure that those research environments are not too "sterile", in that they no longer reflect outcomes in the real world?||Yup. Almost all of the new "findings" in behavioral econ are just psychology findings from decades ago. Economists put their own flavor on it, but it's almost all a rehash (with some exceptions, to be sure). Often you find something like this: psychologist learned something 30 years ago, but the studies were pretty low powered and didn't incentivize participants. So a behavioral economist redoes the experiments with more power (bigger sample), incentivized participants, and then claims that they discovered something new. In reality, they often just re-discovered something that was already known, but tested the idea within the economics paradigms of research. Yes, I'm being cynical, but that's been my experience by and large.|
|As for sterility, you can learn a lot from the lab, but generalizing to larger more representative populations, with more realistic stimuli is important to verity what is learned in a lab.|
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|Thank you for answering! If I may ask another question, what are some questions on the cutting edge of the psychology of decision making? What are big topics that haven't yet been answered?||I don't know, but I hope what happens is we actually have some direction. Right now, everyone just studies whatever they want, regardless of importance or value. That's fun, for sure, but doesn't move a field forward. What we need is to come together and define the 10-20 BIG questions that need to be answered and then all agree to work on those questions. Other fields have done this (see Math: https://www.claymath.org/millennium-problems), so there's some hope for us too.|
|Hey Jeff! I've started learning and gaining more interest in how data is involved in making decisions and the benefits of continously learning organizations. Even today, I was watching a video by a CMU PhD candidate (Jabe Bloom). I don't have a Masters in anything yet, but I have wondered if I would enjoy going to grad school and learning more. Do you have an experience to share or advice about when going back would or wouldn't be a good idea? I think you would have interesting thoughts based on being a Professor and having researched Design Science. Thanks!||Really hard question to answer and it depends on the type of graduate work you want to do. If you just love learning, getting a masters in something like psychology or decision science is a no brainer. Masters programs let you dig in to topics that you find interesting and might even use for your career. Go for it.|
|On the other hand, if you are thinking about a PhD, that's a different story. Being an academic has less do with learning, and more to do with creating knowledge. A lot of students who are straight-A students fail in a PhD because they can't make the leap from learning to creating. So if your passion is to create knowledge, a PhD is for you. If you just want to learn (nothing wrong with that!!!), a masters program makes sense.|
|Professer Galak, thank you for doing this. I don't know much about Marketing, so I got some perhaps basic questions that I have been curious about for you: As we are still in the middle of the pandamic, many of us are doing more (even more than before) online shopping. What do you think are some of the major consumer decision making difference when it comes to online shopping vs inperson shopping. Do you think different factors can affect consumer happiness for the same product purchased through different channel?||Definitely not a basic question! There's a lot here, but I'll focus on one thing: transaction friction. With inperson shopping, to buy something, you have to actually get off your butt, go to a store, and find what you want. With online shopping, you can just click "buy now". That means you'll have way more impulse purchases and way more wasted spending. We already saw that before the pandemic as Amazon and the like took over retail. Now we'll see more of it. It doesn't help that pandemics bring anxiety and fear...two things that are known to increase desire to shop (think "retail therapy")|
|We all tend towards anthropocentrism and exceptionalism, and rationalise our own behaviour. In your experience, is human behaviour more complex or less complex than we often imagine? Is free will often an illusion and are we more predictable than we imagine? I remember watching a tongue-in-cheek BBC documentary from back in the day, where people suffering relationship difficulties were offered advice from a relationship therapist, who was actually a dog trainer. It was quite interesting how much a few biscuits and cups of tea seemingly improved troubled relationships, as they taught partners to use what amounted to classical conditioning instead of berating each other.||Both. We are easily manipulated and influenced by our environment. Much more so than most people realize. On the other hand, humans have the capacity to really surprise even themselves. Just look at what humanity has accomplished despite all our shortcomings. It's kind of amazing when you really reflect on this.|
|I've been reading that decision-making depends critically on the emotional parts of the brain. For example, a truly Spock-like person would be indecisive to the point of paralysis. Unfortunately, emotion also pushes us toward confirmation bias and in-group vs out-group bias, which is not optimal. Are there tricks/brainhacks for preventing emotion-based bias? For example, in the case of a yes/no decision, could we flip a coin and inhabit the "yes" emotional world for a day, then switch to the "no" side and inhabit it for a day? After that, an emotion-based decision might be less biased?||Great question with a lot to unpack. First, biases don't require emotionality. Most biases are purely cognitive in nature...meaning you they don't involve emotions at all. Things like confirmation bias, in-out group bias etc all don't involve emotions (they can certainly be emotional, but they don't need emotions to operate). So I think what you're thinking of is what is known as System 1 vs 2 processes. System 1 are the automatic behaviors that happen quickly and often result in biases. System 2 is the more deliberative way of thinking that can have other biases, but not the kind you're thinking of.|
|Now to emotions, yes, they matter a lot and emotional decision making is its own sub-field in psychology. Strong emotions CAN push people to act quickly (system 1), but that's not always the case.|
|So how do you prevent some of these errors in judgments? First, pre-defining how you plan to make a decision is important. Come up with rules that you plan to follow and stick to those. Don't let emotions or circumstances change that. Second, if you find yourself highly emotional for whatever reason, DON'T MAKE IMPORTANT DECISIONS! It's less about bias and more about tunnel vision...you just can't focus on all the things that matter. Finally, sometimes, emotions HELP decision making. Fight-or-flight responses are a real thing and they are typically triggered by extreme fear. You don't want a slow deliberation if someone is about to punch you. You need to react. Right away. So in those cases, emotions can actually be very beneficial.|
|Hey! Ive got a question! Why even though we all know that companies put price tags like 4.99€ on products to trick us in believing they are cheaper than they are, they keep on doing it. In fact lately ive noticed that they started putting 4.98€ instead, can you explain why do they keep doing what we already know why its done? Does it really trick us?||In short, it works. People are what we call "cognitive misers". They are lazy (me too, by the way...all of us). Sure if you focus carefully you'll see that 4.99 is just 5, but most of the time we don't have the mental energy/capacity to do so. So we see 4.99 as 4. That might make the difference between you buying something and not...so firms keep doing it. 4.98, is the same basic idea, but it also helps with online searches. If you sort by lowest price, 4.98 will come before 4.99.|
|I work in the tourism marketing field - do you have any insights on how to convince people to visit other places in their own country rather than travelling abroad? Obviously COVID has made this aspect fairly important as most of us can’t travel internationally.||Until people feel safe, they won't travel anywhere. Once some level of safety is reached, perhaps focusing on the fact that some local tourism doesn't require air travel, which may still be perceived as a risk. Once we have a vaccine and it is well distributed, you'll be back to the normal operations of tourism. Some will go domestic and some will go abroad. I suspect that in the initial recovery there will be much more int'l travel. People will want to get as far from the home they've been cooped up in as possible. Good luck!|
|Do you fit your theories into ACT-R? If so, how do you reconcile its decay model with real life?||I am much more a social psychologist than a cognitive psychologists, so I honestly don't ever think about ACT-R or other cognitive models like it.|
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|I'll redo my original question then. How do you account for decision changes over time? E.g., A person doesn't buy a car initially, but buys it later after one week.||I don't understand what you mean by "account"? My research is almost entirely experimental in nature, where I randomly assign participants to various conditions and observe the causal consequences of doing so. People can change their minds all they want, so long as they don't do so differently across conditions (which is where random assignment comes in).|
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|My question is what is you explanation (theoey/hypothesis) for why people change their minds? Sorry I wasn't being clear.||Got it. Preferences are largely constructed based on context (see work by John Payne). That largely explains most changes of opinions/choices.|
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|Sounds magical. What contexts change decisions and how?||This is getting confrontational, and I'm sorry if I contributed to that. Constructed preferences refers to the fact that decisions are highly influenced by contextual factors, most prominently other options. Things like the compromise effect, decoy effect, default effect, etc... all demonstrate that people's preferences can change very easily just by virtue of the environment that those decisions are made in. In other words, preferences are very malleable. For a great review of this, I suggest this: https://www.decisionresearch.org/publication/the-construction-of-preference/|
|if your so smart why didn't you buy tsla at $200 per share?||Who said I was smart?|
|Is it really correct to have two ands in your title?||Sadly, it is. "Marketing" is one area and "Social and Decision Science" is another area. So I'm both "Marketing" and "Social and Decision Science". It's ugly, I know.|
|Hi Jeff! Im curious about gift giving from a marketing perspective. Do people value physical gifts more than a “free webinar” or downloadable booklet? And do they only value those later free things if they consume them or if they just sign up for them?||Gifts from firms are very different than gifts from people. For the latter, we understand that the motive is USUALLY to do something nice. For the former, we undrestand that the motive is get me to do something (e.g. buy a future webinar). That said, gifts from firms to increase participation, but I don't think they are any more effective than, say, a price discount or a "free intro" promotion.|
|How can I, a finance student, develop more of my marketer side? Thank you for the hard work professor||The easy answer is take marketing courses. Short of that, consider a Coursera course like this one:https://www.coursera.org/learn/wharton-marketing?utm_source=gg&utm_medium=sem&utm_content=01-CourseraCatalog-DSA-US&campaignid=9918777773&adgroupid=102058276958&device=c&keyword=&matchtype=b&network=g&devicemodel=&adpostion=&creativeid=434544785640&hide_mobile_promo&gclid=CjwKCAjw4rf6BRAvEiwAn2Q76pMC6znD88ijC2vBI1HD2oRnG6s3TDglhhANO3QYuqiuUdjgW8r01RoCC_EQAvD_BwE|
|(I have no affiliation with Coursera or that course...just seems reasonable).|
|Can your studies be replicated? Have you tried?||I sure hope so! I've replicated plenty myself and other labs have replicated lots of my work, but not all of it. Across all my published papers, there are more than 100 experiments. The reality is that some are just not interesting enough to others to bother replicating...that's just part of doing science...some of it is big and important and some proves not be...though it's often hard to tell in advance which projects will be impactful and which won't. For those that have been replicated, I believe all have confirmed my original work.|
|Besides online shopping, what other big shifts in consumer behavior are you seeing, or theorizing will change dramatically, through this pandemic?||I think you'll see a split among people in terms of digital engagement. Some will just dig in all the way and live on Netflix. But some will go the other route and explore nature for the first time, or play more board games, or read more books.|
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|Thanks for the reply. What of deep-seated attitudes like those that seem to be present in those from the Great Depression, e.g. thriftiness?||The Great Depression lasted for a decade and, as much as this pandemic sucks, it is nowhere near as devastating financially as the 1930s were. So no, I don't think you'll see that level of thriftiness. I'm hopeful that we'll have a vaccine in a year or so and in 2-3 years we'll have largely recovered financially. Maybe I'm being too optimistic, but that's all I have to keep me going :)|
|Are you a cat person or a dog person? Why?||I have a cat, but I want a dog. my cat doesn't do anything and just takes up space. A dog would be fun to play with and bond with, but I have two young children, a career, and a pandemic to deal with. I just don't have capacity for a dog.|
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|I see. Thanks for answering. Can you give out your top 10 TO READ BEFORE YOU DIE books? It can be a mix of fiction, non fiction, self-help, depressing, life changing books. :D||I appreciate the spirit of the question, but books are so individualized. What I find amazing won't be what others do. That said, just off the top of my head:|
|1. How to lie with statistics.|
|2. Ender's game|
|3. Predictably Irrational|
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|Thank you for the answer again! Last but not the least. I'm failing community college. During the summer break, I got help with a therapist as well as my girlfriend supporting my focusing on mental health. Anyway, do you think it's still a wise decision to go to a UC when I transfer? Because right now, I could prolly go to SJSU after some time mending my failures but I want to achieve more. Do you think I can go to like say...UC B? If so, what is one advice you'll give to a student who's failing but wants to succeed? The process for getting a psych eval for adhd/clinical depression is in the works. I might get medicine after some months.||i wish I could give you a direct answer, but I really can't. I strongly suggest speaking to an advisor or counselor at your CC or at SJSU to find out what your best course of action is.|
|As for advice, consider if higher education is the right path for you. It well might be! but for some, it's just not the way to go. People have amazing lives working in trades or working for themselves. If you love learning and want to use the knowledge you gain for a career, go for it. If you're just doing it because "that's what people do," maybe consider what other options you have.|
|Good luck with whatever you do!|
|Do you think of Big Data as a natural and/or renewable resource? Would you support regulating Big Data as a public utility or public good alongside ailand/water?||Honestly, I have never considered big data as a resource that way. I'd love to learn more about that idea...is there something you can recommend as a resource/reading?|
|What kind of melon is your favorite?||Watermelon, easily.|
It's time to get real because the market is going up and all the new users here could lose their crypto. Here are the 10 best things you can do to protect yourself & your funds:
A new crypto user and their crypto are easily parted.Here are a few ways to prevent that:
1. Get a hardware wallet. 🛡️A hardware wallet holds your private key within the device and protects it from being exposed. It's recommended to use a hardware wallet for cold storage (the funds you don't plan to touch). The two biggest players are Ledger and Trezor. Both are great.
2. Browse safely. 🌐Always use bookmarks and never click links, and install an extension like MetaMask or EAL to protect you from known phishing sites.
3. Never enter your private keys on a website. 🔑One of the most common ways for someone to be parted from their cryptocurrency is via a phishing site, a.k.a. a fake version of a real site. Phishing sites will usually allow you to enter your private key so you can "access" your funds, but as soon as you enter your private key they'll send it to their servers, access your funds themselves, and drain your account.
It's a BAD HABIT to enter your private key into a website. Just don't do it. If you have to use a private key / mnemonic phrase / keystore file, use a desktop application that's away from the browser. Even then, make sure to verify it's not a fake desktop application.
4. Turn on 2FA for everything. EVERYTHING. 📲Choose Google Authenticator over Authy. Don't use your phone number. Then, make sure your phone number is NOT tied to your Google account (look in privacy settings).
SIM-swapping is real and common and if your phone number is attached to any account recoveries, you could be in real trouble.
5. Be mindful of where you store your keys. 🔐Don't store your keys on cloud storage like Dropbox. Don't store your keys in your email. Ideally, don't store your keys on any device that's connected to the internet. All of these things can be accessed by bad actors if you're not careful.
Use a hardware wallet, and keep your backups safe on an air-gapped device or in a safe physical location.
6. Verify everything. 🔎Check the URLs of the websites you're on.
Check the URLs of the social media accounts you're reading.
Check the URLs of the GitHub repos you're exploring.
Never download anything from an unverified URL that someone sent you - go find the proper URL at the proper source.
Double- and triple-check everything, especially when you're sending a transaction - read and verify the output addresses. For an extra layer of assurance when sending a transaction, try out Protected Transactions.
7. Never click on ads/promoted results. 🛑Many times these promoted results are actually promoting scam/fake/phishing sites.
8. Nobody is giving away ETH. 🚫Ever. EVER. If you see someone giving away crypto or saying that you have to send them crypto to get more crypto in return, RUN AWAY. It's not real.
9. Look out for one another. 💞If you've been in this space for a while, you know exponentially more than someone who started exploring it. Things move quickly, so it's likely that you're an expert in some of these subjects, and you can share this knowledge to help new users build better habits.
You have the power to help others not screw up. Use that power!
10. Use your brain. 🧠Always stop and think.
Don't assume, ask.
Don't blindly follow, question.
Patience is truly a virtue.
If something seems too good to be true, it's likely not true.