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The United States of America (USA), commonly known as the United States (U.S. or US) or America, is a country consisting of 50 states, a federal district, five major self-governing territories, and various possessions.[g] At 3.8 million square miles (9.8 million km2), it is the world's third- or fourth-largest country by total area[c]. Most of the country is located in central North America between Canada and Mexico. With an estimated population of over 328 million, the U.S. is the third most populous country in the world. The capital is Washington, D.C., and the most populous city is New York City.
Paleo-Indians migrated from Siberia to the North American mainland at least 12,000 years ago.[19] European colonization began in the 16th century. The United States emerged from the thirteen British colonies established along the East Coast. Numerous disputes between Great Britain and the colonies led to the American Revolutionary War lasting between 1775 and 1783, leading to independence.[20] The United States embarked on a vigorous expansion across North America throughout the 19th century—gradually acquiring new territories,[21] displacing Native Americans, and admitting new states—until 1848 when it spanned the continent.[21] During the second half of the 19th century, the American Civil War led to the abolition of slavery in the United States.[22][23] The Spanish–American War and World War I confirmed the country's status as a global military power.
The United States emerged from World War II as a global superpower. It was the first country to develop nuclear weapons and is the only country to have used them in warfare. During the Cold War, the United States and the Soviet Union competed in the Space Race, culminating with the 1969 Apollo 11 mission, the spaceflight that first landed humans on the Moon. The end of the Cold War and collapse of the Soviet Union in 1991 left the United States as the world's sole superpower.[24]
The United States is a federal republic and a representative democracy. It is a founding member of the United Nations, World Bank, International Monetary Fund, Organization of American States (OAS), NATO, and other international organizations. It is a permanent member of the United Nations Security Council.
A highly developed country, the United States is the world's largest economy by nominal GDP, the second-largest by purchasing power parity, and accounts for approximately a quarter of global GDP.[25] The United States is the world's largest importer and the second-largest exporter of goods, by value.[26][27] Although its population is 4% of the world total,[28] it holds 29.4% of the total wealth in the world, the largest share of global wealth concentrated in a single country.[29] Despite income and wealth disparities, the United States continues to rank very high in measures of socioeconomic performance, including average wage, median income, median wealth, human development, per capita GDP, and worker productivity.[30][31] It is the foremost military power in the world, making up more than a third of global military spending,[32] and is a leading political, cultural, and scientific force internationally.[33]
Contents 1 Etymology 2 History 2.1 Indigenous peoples and pre-Columbian history 2.2 Effects on and interaction with native populations 2.3 European settlements 2.4 Independence and expansion (1776–1865) 2.5 Civil War and Reconstruction era 2.6 Further immigration, expansion, and industrialization 2.7 World War I, Great Depression, and World War II 2.8 Cold War and civil rights era 2.9 Contemporary history 3 Geography, climate, and environment 3.1 Wildlife 4 Demographics 4.1 Population 4.1.1 Major population areas 4.2 Language 4.3 Religion 4.4 Family structure 4.5 Health 4.6 Education 4.6.1 Higher education 5 Government and politics 5.1 Political divisions 5.2 Parties and elections 5.3 Foreign relations 5.4 Government finance 5.5 Military 6 Law enforcement and crime 7 Economy 7.1 Science and technology 7.2 Income, poverty and wealth 8 Infrastructure 8.1 Transportation 8.2 Energy 8.3 Water supply and sanitation 9 Culture 9.1 Food 9.2 Literature, philosophy, and visual art 9.3 Music 9.4 Cinema 9.5 Sports 9.6 Mass media 10 See also 11 Notes 12 References 13 Further reading 14 External links Etymology See also: Naming of the Americas, Names for United States citizens, and American (word) The first known use of the name "America" dates back to 1507, when it appeared on a world map created by the German cartographer Martin Waldseemüller. The name on the map applied to the lands of South America, in honor of the Italian explorer Amerigo Vespucci (Latin: Americus Vespucius).[34] After returning from his expeditions, Vespucci first postulated that the West Indies did not represent Asia's eastern limit, as initially thought by Columbus, but instead were part of an entirely separate landmass thus far unknown to the Europeans.[35] Then in 1538, the Flemish cartographer Gerardus Mercator used the name "America" on his map of the world, applying it to the entire Western Hemisphere.[36]
The first documentary evidence of the phrase "United States of America" is from a letter dated January 2, 1776, written by Stephen Moylan, Esq., to George Washington's aide-de-camp and Muster-Master General of the Continental Army, Lt. Col. Joseph Reed. Moylan expressed his wish to go "with full and ample powers from the United States of America to Spain" to seek assistance in the revolutionary war effort.[37][38][39] The first known publication of the phrase "United States of America" was in an anonymous essay in The Virginia Gazette newspaper in Williamsburg, Virginia, on April 6, 1776.[40]
The second draft of the Articles of Confederation, prepared by John Dickinson and completed by June 17, 1776, at the latest, declared "The name of this Confederation shall be the 'United States of America'".[41] The final version of the Articles sent to the states for ratification in late 1777 contains the sentence "The Stile of this Confederacy shall be 'The United States of America'".[42] In June 1776, Thomas Jefferson wrote the phrase "UNITED STATES OF AMERICA" in all capitalized letters in the headline of his "original Rough draught" of the Declaration of Independence.[41] This draft of the document did not surface until June 21, 1776, and it is unclear whether it was written before or after Dickinson used the term in his June 17 draft of the Articles of Confederation.[41]
The short form "United States" is also standard. Other common forms are the "U.S.", the "USA", and "America". Colloquial names are the "U.S. of A." and, internationally, the "States". "Columbia", a name popular in poetry and songs of the late 18th century, derives its origin from Christopher Columbus; it appears in the name "District of Columbia". Many landmarks and institutions in the Western Hemisphere bear his name, including the country of Colombia.[43]
The phrase "United States" was originally plural, a description of a collection of independent states—e.g., "the United States are"—including in the Thirteenth Amendment to the United States Constitution, ratified in 1865.[44] The singular form—e.g., "the United States is"—became popular after the end of the American Civil War. The singular form is now standard; the plural form is retained in the idiom "these United States". The difference is more significant than usage; it is a difference between a collection of states and a unit.[45]
A citizen of the United States is an "American". "United States", "American" and "U.S." refer to the country adjectivally ("American values", "U.S. forces"). In English, the word "American" rarely refers to topics or subjects not directly connected with the United States.[46]
History Main articles: History of the United States, Timeline of United States history, American business history, Economic history of the United States, and Labor history of the United States Indigenous peoples and pre-Columbian history Further information: Native Americans in the United States and Pre-Columbian era
The Cliff Palace, built by ancient Native American Puebloans around 1190 AD It has been generally accepted that the first inhabitants of North America migrated from Siberia by way of the Bering land bridge and arrived at least 12,000 years ago; however, increasing evidence suggests an even earlier arrival.[19][47][48] After crossing the land bridge, the first Americans moved southward along the Pacific coast[49] and through an interior ice-free corridor between the Cordilleran and Laurentide ice sheets.[50] The Clovis culture appeared around 11,000 BC, and is considered to be an ancestor of most of the later indigenous cultures of the Americas.[51] The Clovis culture was believed to represent the first human settlement of the Americas.[52] Over the years, more and more evidence has advanced the idea of "pre-Clovis" cultures including tools dating back about 15,550 years ago. It is likely these represent the first of three major waves of migrations into North America.[53]
Over time, indigenous cultures in North America grew increasingly complex, and some, such as the pre-Columbian Mississippian culture in the southeast, developed advanced agriculture, grand architecture, and state-level societies.[54] The Mississippian culture flourished in the south from 800 to 1600 AD, extending from the Mexican border down through Florida.[55] Its city state Cahokia is considered the largest, most complex pre-Columbian archaeological site in the modern-day United States.[56] In the Four Corners region, Ancestral Puebloans culture developed as the culmination of centuries of agricultural experimentation, which produced greater dependence on farming.[57]
A Native American Lecroy Point flint arrowhead, 9000-7000 BC Three UNESCO World Heritage Sites in the United States are credited to the Pueblos: Mesa Verde National Park, Chaco Culture National Historical Park, and Taos Pueblo.[58][59] The earthworks constructed by Native Americans of the Poverty Point culture in northeastern Louisiana have also been designated a UNESCO World Heritage site. In the southern Great Lakes region, the Iroquois Confederacy (Haudenosaunee) was established at some point between the twelfth and fifteenth centuries.[60] Most prominent along the Atlantic cost were the Algonquian tribes, who practiced hunting and trapping, along with limited cultivation. The date of the first settlements of the Hawaiian Islands is a topic of continuing debate.[61] Archaeological evidence seems to indicate a settlement as early as 124 AD.[62]
Effects on and interaction with native populations Further information: American Indian Wars, Population history of indigenous peoples of the Americas, and Native American disease and epidemics With the progress of European colonization in the territories of the contemporary United States, the Native Americans were often conquered and displaced.[63] The native population of America declined after Europeans arrived, and for various reasons,[64][65] primarily diseases such as smallpox and measles.[66][67]
While estimating the original native population of North America at the time of European contact is difficult, an attempt was made in the early part of the twentieth century by James Mooney using historic records to estimate the indigenous population north of Mexico in 1600.[68][69] In more recent years, Douglas H. Ubelaker of the Smithsonian Institution has updated these figures.[70] While Ubelaker estimated that there was a population of 92,916 in the south Atlantic states and a population of 473,616 in the Gulf states, most academics regard the figure as too low.[68] Anthropologist Henry F. Dobyns believed the populations were much higher, suggesting 1,100,000 along the shores of the gulf of Mexico, 2,211,000 people living between Florida and Massachusetts, 5,250,000 in the Mississippi Valley and tributaries and 697,000 people in the Florida peninsula.[68][69]
In the early days of colonization, many European settlers were subject to food shortages, disease, and attacks from Native Americans. Native Americans were also often at war with neighboring tribes and allied with Europeans in their colonial wars. At the same time, however, many natives and settlers came to depend on each other. Settlers traded for food and animal pelts, natives for guns, ammunition and other European wares.[71] Natives taught many settlers where, when and how to cultivate corn, beans, and squash. European missionaries and others felt it was important to "civilize" the Native Americans and urged them to adopt European agricultural techniques and lifestyles.[72][73]
European settlements Further information: Colonial history of the United States, European colonization of the Americas, and Thirteen Colonies
Mayflower in Plymouth Harbor by William Halsall With the advancement of European colonization in the territories of the contemporary United States, the Native Americans were often conquered and displaced.[74] The first Europeans to arrive in the territory of the modern United States were Spanish conquistadors such as Juan Ponce de León, who made his first visit to Florida in 1513; however, if unincorporated territories are accounted for, then credit would go to Christopher Columbus who landed in Puerto Rico on his 1493 voyage. The Spanish set up the first settlements in Florida and New Mexico such as Saint Augustine[75] and Santa Fe. The French established their own as well along the Mississippi River. Successful English settlement on the eastern coast of North America began with the Virginia Colony in 1607 at Jamestown and the Pilgrims' Plymouth Colony in 1620. Many settlers were dissenting Christian groups who came seeking religious freedom. The continent's first elected legislative assembly, Virginia's House of Burgesses created in 1619, the Mayflower Compact, signed by the Pilgrims before disembarking, and the Fundamental Orders of Connecticut, established precedents for the pattern of representative self-government and constitutionalism that would develop throughout the American colonies.[76][77]
Most settlers in every colony were small farmers, but other industries developed within a few decades as varied as the settlements. Cash crops included tobacco, rice, and wheat. Extraction industries grew up in furs, fishing and lumber. Manufacturers produced rum and ships, and by the late colonial period, Americans were producing one-seventh of the world's iron supply.[78] Cities eventually dotted the coast to support local economies and serve as trade hubs. English colonists were supplemented by waves of Scotch-Irish and other groups. As coastal land grew more expensive, freed indentured servants pushed further west.[79]
European territorial claims during the mid-18th century A large-scale slave trade with English privateers was begun.[80] The life expectancy of slaves was much higher in North America than further south, because of less disease and better food and treatment, leading to a rapid increase in the numbers of slaves.[81][82] Colonial society was largely divided over the religious and moral implications of slavery, and colonies passed acts for and against the practice.[83][84] But by the turn of the 18th century, African slaves were replacing indentured servants for cash crop labor, especially in southern regions.[85]
With the establishment of the Province of Georgia in 1732, the 13 colonies that would become the United States of America were administered by the British as overseas dependencies.[86] All nonetheless had local governments with elections open to most free men, with a growing devotion to the ancient rights of Englishmen and a sense of self-government stimulating support for republicanism.[87] With extremely high birth rates, low death rates, and steady settlement, the colonial population grew rapidly. Relatively small Native American populations were eclipsed.[88] The Christian revivalist movement of the 1730s and 1740s known as the Great Awakening fueled interest both in religion and in religious liberty.[89]
During the Seven Years' War (in the United States, known as the French and Indian War), British forces seized Canada from the French, but the francophone population remained politically isolated from the southern colonies. Excluding the Native Americans, who were being conquered and displaced, the 13 British colonies had a population of over 2.1 million in 1770, about a third that of Britain. Despite continuing new arrivals, the rate of natural increase was such that by the 1770s only a small minority of Americans had been born overseas.[90] The colonies' distance from Britain had allowed the development of self-government, but their success motivated monarchs to periodically seek to reassert royal authority.[91]
In 1774, the Spanish Navy ship Santiago, under Juan Pérez, entered and anchored in an inlet of Nootka Sound, Vancouver Island, in present-day British Columbia. Although the Spanish did not land, natives paddled to the ship to trade furs for abalone shells from California.[92] At the time, the Spanish were able to monopolize the trade between Asia and North America, granting limited licenses to the Portuguese. When the Russians began establishing a growing fur trading system in Alaska, the Spanish began to challenge the Russians, with Pérez's voyage being the first of many to the Pacific Northwest.[93][h]
During his third and final voyage, Captain James Cook became the first European to begin formal contact with Hawaii.[95] Captain Cook's last voyage included sailing along the coast of North America and Alaska searching for a Northwest Passage for approximately nine months.[96]
Independence and expansion (1776–1865) Further information: American Revolutionary War, United States Declaration of Independence, American Revolution, and Territorial evolution of the United States
Declaration of Independence by John Trumbull The American Revolutionary War was the first successful colonial war of independence against a European power. Americans had developed an ideology of "republicanism" asserting that government rested on the will of the people as expressed in their local legislatures. They demanded their rights as Englishmen and "no taxation without representation". The British insisted on administering the empire through Parliament, and the conflict escalated into war.[97]
The Second Continental Congress unanimously adopted the Declaration of Independence, which recognized in a long preamble that their unalienable rights were not being protected by Great Britain. The fourth day of July is celebrated annually as Independence Day:[98] "... where, heretofore, the words 'United Colonies' have been used, the stile be altered for the future to the 'United States'".[99] In 1777, the Articles of Confederation established a decentralized government that operated until 1789.[98]
Map of territorial acquisitions of the United States between 1783 and 1917 Following the decisive Franco-American victory at Yorktown in 1781,[100] Britain signed the peace treaty of 1783, and American sovereignty was internationally recognized and the country was granted all lands east of the Mississippi River. Nationalists led the Philadelphia Convention of 1787 in writing the United States Constitution, ratified in state conventions in 1788. The federal government was reorganized into three branches, on the principle of creating salutary checks and balances, in 1789. George Washington, who had led the Continental Army to victory, was the first president elected under the new constitution. The Bill of Rights, forbidding federal restriction of personal freedoms and guaranteeing a range of legal protections, was adopted in 1791.[101]
Although the federal government criminalized the international slave trade in 1808, after 1820, cultivation of the highly profitable cotton crop exploded in the Deep South, and along with it, the slave population.[102][103][104] The Second Great Awakening, especially 1800–1840, converted millions to evangelical Protestantism. In the North, it energized multiple social reform movements, including abolitionism;[105] in the South, Methodists and Baptists proselytized among slave populations.[106]
Americans' eagerness to expand westward prompted a long series of American Indian Wars.[107] The Louisiana Purchase of French-claimed territory in 1803 almost doubled the nation's area.[108] The War of 1812, declared against Britain over various grievances and fought to a draw, strengthened U.S. nationalism.[109] A series of military incursions into Florida led Spain to cede it and other Gulf Coast territory in 1819.[110] The expansion was aided by steam power, when steamboats began traveling along America's large water systems, many of which were connected by new canals, such as the Erie and the I&M; then, even faster railroads began their stretch across the nation's land.[111]
American bison grazing The Gateway Arch, in St. Louis, Missouri, was built in 1965 to commemorate the westward expansion of the United States.[112] From 1820 to 1850, Jacksonian democracy began a set of reforms which included wider white male suffrage; it led to the rise of the Second Party System of Democrats and Whigs as the dominant parties from 1828 to 1854. The Trail of Tears in the 1830s exemplified the Indian removal policy that forcibly resettled Indians into the west on Indian reservations. The U.S. annexed the Republic of Texas in 1845 during a period of expansionist Manifest destiny.[113] The 1846 Oregon Treaty with Britain led to U.S. control of the present-day American Northwest.[114] Victory in the Mexican–American War resulted in the 1848 Mexican Cession of California and much of the present-day American Southwest.[115] The California Gold Rush of 1848–49 spurred migration to the Pacific coast, which led to the California Genocide[116][117][118][119] and the creation of additional western states.[120] After the American Civil War, new transcontinental railways made relocation easier for settlers, expanded internal trade and increased conflicts with Native Americans.[121] For half a century, the rapidly declining buffalo struck an existential blow to many Plains Indians' culture.[122] In 1869, a new Peace Policy nominally promised to protect Native-Americans from abuses, avoid further war, and secure their eventual U.S. citizenship. Nonetheless, large-scale conflicts continued throughout the West into the 1900s.
Civil War and Reconstruction era Further information: American Civil War and Reconstruction era
President Abraham Lincoln in Gettysburg, Pennsylvania, November 19, 1863 Differences of opinion regarding the slavery of Africans and African Americans ultimately led to the American Civil War.[123] Initially, states entering the Union had alternated between slave and free states, keeping a sectional balance in the Senate, while free states outstripped slave states in population and in the House of Representatives. But with additional western territory and more free-soil states, tensions between slave and free states mounted with arguments over federalism and disposition of the territories, whether and how to expand or restrict slavery.[124]
With the 1860 election of Abraham Lincoln, the first president from the largely anti-slavery Republican Party, conventions in thirteen slave states ultimately declared secession and formed the Confederate States of America (the "South"), while the federal government (the "Union") maintained that secession was illegal.[124] In order to bring about this secession, military action was initiated by the secessionists, and the Union responded in kind. The ensuing war would become the deadliest military conflict in American history, resulting in the deaths of approximately 618,000 soldiers as well as many civilians.[125] The South fought for the freedom to own slaves, while the Union at first simply fought to maintain the country as one united whole. Nevertheless, as casualties mounted after 1863 and Lincoln delivered his Emancipation Proclamation, the main purpose of the war from the Union's viewpoint became the abolition of slavery. Indeed, when the Union ultimately won the war in April 1865, each of the states in the defeated South was required to ratify the Thirteenth Amendment, which prohibited slavery.
Three amendments were added to the U.S. Constitution in the years after the war: the aforementioned Thirteenth as well as the Fourteenth Amendment providing citizenship to the nearly four million African Americans who had been slaves,[126] and the Fifteenth Amendment ensuring in theory that African Americans had the right to vote. The war and its resolution led to a substantial increase in federal power[127] aimed at reintegrating and rebuilding the South while guaranteeing the rights of the newly freed slaves.
Reconstruction began in earnest following the war. While President Lincoln attempted to foster friendship and forgiveness between the Union and the former Confederacy, his assassination on April 14, 1865, drove a wedge between North and South again. Republicans in the federal government made it their goal to oversee the rebuilding of the South and to ensure the rights of African Americans. They persisted until the Compromise of 1877 when the Republicans agreed to cease protecting the rights of African Americans in the South in order for Democrats to concede the presidential election of 1876.
Southern white Democrats, calling themselves "Redeemers", took control of the South after the end of Reconstruction. From 1890 to 1910, so-called Jim Crow laws disenfranchised most blacks and some poor whites throughout the region. Blacks faced racial segregation, especially in the South.[128] They also occasionally experienced vigilante violence, including lynching.[129]
Further immigration, expansion, and industrialization Main articles: Economic history of the United States and Technological and industrial history of the United States
Ellis Island, in New York Harbor, was a major entry point for European immigration into the U.S.[130] In the North, urbanization and an unprecedented influx of immigrants from Southern and Eastern Europe supplied a surplus of labor for the country's industrialization and transformed its culture.[131] National infrastructure including telegraph and transcontinental railroads spurred economic growth and greater settlement and development of the American Old West. The later invention of electric light and the telephone would also affect communication and urban life.[132]
The United States fought Indian Wars west of the Mississippi River from 1810 to at least 1890.[133] Most of these conflicts ended with the cession of Native American territory and the confinement of the latter to Indian reservations. This further expanded acreage under mechanical cultivation, increasing surpluses for international markets.[134] Mainland expansion also included the purchase of Alaska from Russia in 1867.[135] In 1893, pro-American elements in Hawaii overthrew the monarchy and formed the Republic of Hawaii, which the U.S. annexed in 1898. Puerto Rico, Guam, and the Philippines were ceded by Spain in the same year, following the Spanish–American War.[136] American Samoa was acquired by the United States in 1900 after the end of the Second Samoan Civil War.[137] The United States purchased the U.S. Virgin Islands from Denmark in 1917.[138]
The Statue of Liberty in New York City, symbol of the United States as well as its ideals[139] Rapid economic development during the late 19th and early 20th centuries fostered the rise of many prominent industrialists. Tycoons like Cornelius Vanderbilt, John D. Rockefeller, and Andrew Carnegie led the nation's progress in railroad, petroleum, and steel industries. Banking became a major part of the economy, with J. P. Morgan playing a notable role. Edison and Tesla undertook the widespread distribution of electricity to industry, homes, and for street lighting. Henry Ford revolutionized the automotive industry. The American economy boomed, becoming the world's largest, and the United States achieved great power status.[140] These dramatic changes were accompanied by social unrest and the rise of populist, socialist, and anarchist movements.[141] This period eventually ended with the advent of the Progressive Era, which saw significant reforms in many societal areas, including women's suffrage, alcohol prohibition, regulation of consumer goods, greater antitrust measures to ensure competition and attention to worker conditions.[142][143][144]
World War I, Great Depression, and World War II Further information: World War I, Great Depression, and World War II
The Empire State Building was the tallest building in the world when completed in 1931, during the Great Depression. The United States remained neutral from the outbreak of World War I in 1914 until 1917, when it joined the war as an "associated power", alongside the formal Allies of World War I, helping to turn the tide against the Central Powers. In 1919, President Woodrow Wilson took a leading diplomatic role at the Paris Peace Conference and advocated strongly for the U.S. to join the League of Nations. However, the Senate refused to approve this and did not ratify the Treaty of Versailles that established the League of Nations.[145]
In 1920, the women's rights movement won passage of a constitutional amendment granting women's suffrage.[146] The 1920s and 1930s saw the rise of radio for mass communication and the invention of early television.[147] The prosperity of the Roaring Twenties ended with the Wall Street Crash of 1929 and the onset of the Great Depression. After his election as president in 1932, Franklin D. Roosevelt responded with the New Deal, which included the establishment of the Social Security system.[148] The Great Migration of millions of African Americans out of the American South began before World War I and extended through the 1960s;[149] whereas the Dust Bowl of the mid-1930s impoverished many farming communities and spurred a new wave of western migration.[150]
U.S. troops landing on Omaha Beach during the invasion of Normandy, June 6, 1944 At first effectively neutral during World War II while Germany conquered much of continental Europe, the United States began supplying materiel to the Allies in March 1941 through the Lend-Lease program. On December 7, 1941, the Empire of Japan launched a surprise attack on Pearl Harbor, prompting the United States to join the Allies against the Axis powers.[151] Although Japan attacked the United States first, the U.S. nonetheless pursued a "Europe first" defense policy.[152] The United States thus left its vast Asian colony, the Philippines, isolated and fighting a losing struggle against Japanese invasion and occupation, as military resources were devoted to the European theater. During the war, the United States was referred to as one of the "Four Policemen"[153] of Allies power who met to plan the postwar world, along with Britain, the Soviet Union and China.[154][155] Although the nation lost around 400,000 military personnel,[156] it emerged relatively undamaged from the war with even greater economic and military influence.[157]
Nuclear explosion from the Trinity Test Trinity test of the Manhattan Project's nuclear weapon The United States played a leading role in the Bretton Woods and Yalta conferences with the United Kingdom, the Soviet Union, and other Allies, which signed agreements on new international financial institutions and Europe's postwar reorganization. As an Allied victory was won in Europe, a 1945 international conference held in San Francisco produced the United Nations Charter, which became active after the war.[158] The United States and Japan then fought each other in the largest naval battle in history in terms of gross tonnage sunk, the Battle of Leyte Gulf.[159][160] The United States eventually developed the first nuclear weapons and used them on Japan in the cities of Hiroshima and Nagasaki; causing the Japanese to surrender on September 2, ending World War II.[161][162] Parades and celebrations followed in what is known as Victory Day, or V-J Day.[163]
Cold War and civil rights era Main articles: History of the United States (1945–1964), History of the United States (1964–1980), and History of the United States (1980–1991) Further information: Cold War, Civil Rights Movement, War on Poverty, Space Race, and Reaganomics
Martin Luther King, Jr. gives his famous "I Have a Dream" speech at the Lincoln Memorial during the March on Washington, 1963 After World War II the United States and the Soviet Union competed for power, influence, and prestige during what became known as the Cold War, driven by an ideological divide between capitalism and communism[164] and, according to the school of geopolitics, a divide between the maritime Atlantic and the continental Eurasian camps. They dominated the military affairs of Europe, with the U.S. and its NATO allies on one side and the USSR and its Warsaw Pact allies on the other. The U.S. developed a policy of containment towards the expansion of communist influence. While the U.S. and Soviet Union engaged in proxy wars and developed powerful nuclear arsenals, the two countries avoided direct military conflict.
The United States often opposed Third World movements that it viewed as Soviet-sponsored, and occasionally pursued direct action for regime change against left-wing governments, even supporting right-wing authoritarian governments at times.[165] American troops fought communist Chinese and North Korean forces in the Korean War of 1950–53.[166] The Soviet Union's 1957 launch of the first artificial satellite and its 1961 launch of the first manned spaceflight initiated a "Space Race" in which the United States became the first nation to land a man on the moon in 1969.[166] A proxy war in Southeast Asia eventually evolved into full American participation, as the Vietnam War.
At home, the U.S. experienced sustained economic expansion and a rapid growth of its population and middle class. Construction of an Interstate Highway System transformed the nation's infrastructure over the following decades. Millions moved from farms and inner cities to large suburban housing developments.[167][168] In 1959 Hawaii became the 50th and last U.S. state added to the country.[169] The growing Civil Rights Movement used nonviolence to confront segregation and discrimination, with Martin Luther King Jr. becoming a prominent leader and figurehead. A combination of court decisions and legislation, culminating in the Civil Rights Act of 1968, sought to end racial discrimination.[170][171][172] Meanwhile, a counterculture movement grew which was fueled by opposition to the Vietnam war, black nationalism, and the sexual revolution.
U.S. president Ronald Reagan (left) and Soviet general secretary Mikhail Gorbachev in Geneva, 1985 The launch of a "War on Poverty" expanded entitlements and welfare spending, including the creation of Medicare and Medicaid, two programs that provide health coverage to the elderly and poor, respectively, and the means-tested Food Stamp Program and Aid to Families with Dependent Children.[173]
The 1970s and early 1980s saw the onset of stagflation. After his election in 1980, President Ronald Reagan responded to economic stagnation with free-market oriented reforms. Following the collapse of détente, he abandoned "containment" and initiated the more aggressive "rollback" strategy towards the USSR.[174][175][176][177][178] After a surge in female labor participation over the previous decade, by 1985 the majority of women aged 16 and over were employed.[179]
The late 1980s brought a "thaw" in relations with the USSR, and its collapse in 1991 finally ended the Cold War.[180][181][182][183] This brought about unipolarity[184] with the U.S. unchallenged as the world's dominant superpower. The concept of Pax Americana, which had appeared in the post-World War II period, gained wide popularity as a term for the post-Cold War new world order.
Contemporary history Main articles: History of the United States (1991–2008) and History of the United States (2008–present) Further information: Gulf War, September 11 attacks, War on Terror, 2008 financial crisis, Affordable Care Act, and Death of Osama bin Laden
The World Trade Center in Lower Manhattan during the September 11 terrorist attacks by the Islamic terrorist group Al-Qaeda in 2001
One World Trade Center, newly built in its place After the Cold War, the conflict in the Middle East triggered a crisis in 1990, when Iraq under Saddam Hussein invaded and attempted to annex Kuwait, an ally of the United States. Fearing that the instability would spread to other regions, President George H. W. Bush launched Operation Desert Shield, a defensive force buildup in Saudi Arabia, and Operation Desert Storm, in a staging titled the Gulf War; waged by coalition forces from 34 nations, led by the United States against Iraq ending in the successful expulsion of Iraqi forces from Kuwait, restoring the former monarchy.[185]
Originating within U.S. military defense networks, the Internet spread to international academic platforms and then to the public in the 1990s, greatly affecting the global economy, society, and culture.[186] Due to the dot-com boom, stable monetary policy under Alan Greenspan, and reduced social welfare spending, the 1990s saw the longest economic expansion in modern U.S. history, ending in 2001.[187] Beginning in 1994, the U.S. entered into the North American Free Trade Agreement (NAFTA), linking 450 million people producing $17 trillion worth of goods and services. The goal of the agreement was to eliminate trade and investment barriers among the U.S., Canada, and Mexico by January 1, 2008. Trade among the three partners has soared since NAFTA went into force.[188]
On September 11, 2001, Al-Qaeda terrorists struck the World Trade Center in New York City and the Pentagon near Washington, D.C., killing nearly 3,000 people.[189] In response, the United States launched the War on Terror, which included war in Afghanistan and the 2003–11 Iraq War.[190][191] In 2007, the Bush administration ordered a major troop surge in the Iraq War,[192] which successfully reduced violence and led to greater stability in the region.[193][194]
Government policy designed to promote affordable housing,[195] widespread failures in corporate and regulatory governance,[196] and historically low interest rates set by the Federal Reserve[197] led to the mid-2000s housing bubble, which culminated with the 2008 financial crisis, the largest economic contraction in the nation's history since the Great Depression.[198] Barack Obama, the first African-American[199] and multiracial[200] president, was elected in 2008 amid the crisis,[201] and subsequently passed stimulus measures and the Dodd-Frank Wall Street Reform and Consumer Protection Act in an attempt to mitigate its negative effects and ensure there would not be a repeat of the crisis. The stimulus facilitated infrastructure improvements[202] and a relative decline in unemployment.[203] Dodd-Frank improved financial stability and consumer protection,[204] although there has been debate about its effects on the economy.[205]
President Donald Trump and former presidents Barack Obama, Bill Clinton and Jimmy Carter at the state funeral of George H. W. Bush, December 2018 In 2010, the Obama administration passed the Affordable Care Act, which made the most sweeping reforms to the nation's healthcare system in nearly five decades, including mandates, subsidies and insurance exchanges.
submitted by MWiatrak2077 to teenagersnew

Wrestling Observer Rewind ★ Nov. 1, 1999

Going through old issues of the Wrestling Observer Newsletter and posting highlights IN MY OWN WORDS*. For anyone interested, you can pay $11.99 to Dave Meltzer and get mumbling audio analysis that takes 20 minutes to get to the point. Plus you get the Observer, which I'm not just copying and pasting. Anyway here goes:\*
Wrestling Observer Newsletter
PO Box 1228, Campbell, CA 95009-1228 ISSN1083-9593 November 8, 1999
Thumbs up 41 (38.7%)
Thumbs down 50 (47.2%)
In the middle 15 (14.2%)
Eddie Guerrero vs. Perry Saturn 26
Bill Goldberg vs. Sid Vicious 19
Ric Flair vs. Diamond Dallas Page 14
Berlyn vs. Brad Armstrong 27
Hulk Hogan vs. Sting 15
Based on phone calls, fax messages, letters and e-mails to the Observer as of Tuesday, 11/2.
The most publicized story ever in North American pro wrestling, the tragic death of Owen Hart on 5/23, is brought vividly back to life with the documentary "The life and death of Owen Hart."
The one-hour piece, debuted in Ontario on TVO on 11/3, in the rest of Canada on 11/6 on the A Channel and will be part of A&E's bio week on pro wrestling, with an 11/16 showing. The film was still having the final editing touches put on at press time, as there are apparently numerous changes from version we are reviewing.
It's a tear-jerker, with a lot of home video footage of Hart with his two young children, Oje and Athena. The most powerful part of the movie is the fact that Producers Paul Jay and Sally Blake, who also produced the highly acclaimed "Wrestling with Shadows," made the point to bring out that this was a real person with a real family who just happened to be a pro wrestler. This portrayal of Hart and all the family home movies made it impossible to dismiss the repercussions of it even though it's a business that has built up thick callouses because deaths happen with such frequency.
Perhaps the most powerful scene was from Martha Hart, talking about why she invited Vince McMahon to the funeral, saying, "I wanted him to realize, you guys are so desensitized from all the garbage that you put in your show you don't even realize the degree of pain that's being caused here, and I want to show you. I want to show you Owen, in the coffin, that he was really gone and he was really taken from me and this is what really happened. This is reality."
This is a story, more about a young family that had the rest of its life mapped out ahead of time. Just a few days, literally, before they were to live out their dream in their new home and a few years before Hart had saved enough money to come home for good, that all his hard work at an arduous job and saving every penny possible along the way to create almost an idyllic family life in the long run, was crushed for good. It's a story that will probably play stronger among women then men, and far stronger among non-wrestling fans than wrestling fans.
For wrestling fans, particularly those who followed Hart's career from its inception, there may be some disappointment in the broad life story of Hart. The movie established that he was a very good amateur and pro wrestler, but it really didn't come across just how good he was at both. It was clear that both amateur and pro wrestling were not worlds he chose, but worlds that he was more or less was drafted into, and that, ultimately, he would never fully escape from. Hart didn't like amateur wrestling. But since Stu's career as a full-time wrestler had wound down, he had more time to raise and teach Owen, who was the best natural athlete in the family, wrestling than any of the older brothers and Owen stayed with wrestling to not disappoint his father. His amateur wrestling, much like Bret's, was living out his father's dream of having a member of the family represent Canada in wrestling at the Olympics, something Stu's shot at doing was taken away by the Olympics being canceled due to World War II, and much as their grandfather (Helen's father) did at the turn of the century in track for the United States. But Owen didn't like the pressure of being an amateur wrestler, particularly because he had to live up to the Hart name in high school and college at a time when his older brothers were already local celebrities on the Stampede Wrestling circuit and his father was the legendary area tough guy who tortured all the football players and weightlifters who thought they were tough. It was interesting to see Hart himself (much of the footage of Hart was filmed when the same company was doing the "Wrestling with Shadows" film in 1997 about his older brother, and you'll notice many similar scenes and photos from that film in this) talk about getting a wrestling scholarship to the University of Calgary (where it never mentions how he was one of the top college wrestlers in the country) and in hindsight wished he hadn't, because his time on the wrestling team took away from his studying time and he felt he screwed up his priorities of what he should have gone to college for in the first place. Since he was on scholarship, when the college dropped its wrestling program after Hart's junior year, where he placed second in the Canadian national championships, he wound up being drafted into pro wrestling rather than finishing and getting his degree.
He had fooled around in pro wrestling and it was more of less a given that he'd try it, given that all his older brothers and several brothers-in-law were doing it, and he took to it more naturally than any of the others. Within about a month or two, he was having classic matches with rivals like Hiroshi Hase (wrestling under a mask) and later Makhan Singh, and was the biggest star in Stampede Wrestling and the hottest young performer in the business. Area wrestling legend Badnews Allen (Allan Coage), rival of Hart in Stampede rings, noted how he at first didn't like Hart, seeing him as a pretty boy member of the owning family who was booked to never lose, but ended up liking and respecting him because he was a good person. His reputation as a ribber was talked about, in particular by Brian Knobs and brother Bret, although not nearly in as colorful terms as would have been possible had their been more time.
Although I don't profess to have been close with Owen Hart, and certainly not over the past several years, the stories that he hated pro wrestling, at least in the early stages of his career, as portrayed here seem exaggerated. He did have his priorities straight and his family was always first. He was notorious when working for the WWF for living a very tame lifestyle on the road and saving every penny possible. He didn't like what pro wrestling in the WWF had turned into over the last year or two of life and was one of the few in the company who would say so publicly. Living for his family first, and his priorities not being pro wrestling first, is a priority structure different from many in the industry, as noted in the film by Mick Foley. Foley was the only WWF wrestler that was part of the movie as there was a company directive, whether in writing or not, for wrestlers not to cooperate with this film and apparently Foley, out of respect for Hart, cooperated anyway, both facts of which speak volumes. But it's hard to believe someone would go all over the world to learn and actually master every different style (something among modern wrestlers, really only Chris Benoit can say they went everywhere and mastered every style) was the same person who hated wrestling. The people who hate wrestling but do so because they can make a good living at it, usually wrestle like Lex Luger, not like Owen Hart.
It should also be noted that I was featured in this, including falling victim to my own personal pet peeve of simplifying the changes in wrestling brought on as a result of a war between Vince McMahon and Ted Turner.
Wrestling fans who followed Hart's career will be disappointed from a history basis. But maybe it's fair the way it was presented because, even though Hart gained his fame inside the ring, his priorities were outside the ring, just as this film emphasized. But still, the story of the life of Owen Hart without mentioning his wrestling trips to Europe and Mexico, let alone his stardom in Japan, even in one-hour form, comes off as incomplete. His career was presented as if he started out and became an immediate star in Stampede Wrestling (although just how good he was in the ring for the standards of that time doesn't come across), went to the WWF as the Blue Blazer where he was asked to lose every match and eventually quit (Blue Blazer was never given the big push, but he was very popular for an undercard wrestler initially and won all his undercard matches for several months until the decision was made to not push him because of his size, and the losses started becoming more regular). He went back home, and when Stampede folded, he tried to get into the fire department and when that failed, went back to work in the WWF, where he was buried in an undercard tag team (the forgettable "High Energy" with Koko Ware) before his famous break came when he feuded with his older brother and he remained a top star until his death.
Footage was shown of the night he accidentally injured Steve Austin with the tombstone piledriver at the 1997 SummerSlam in East Rutherford, NJ, and his thoughts, while standing there knowing he was supposed to lose the Intercontinental title in this match, while Austin laid motionless and temporarily paralyzed, in what he himself described as the longest 20 seconds of his career and ended with the decision to transparently pin himself, saw him question his and others wrestling bred reactions to the tragedy of not dropping the facade and getting the EMT's in and having the match stop immediately. However, the impact on Hart's career, in that Austin, when he became the biggest star in the industry months later, refused to work a natural grudge program with him, was never gone into. Perhaps most eerie in hindsight, was Hart's 1997 conversations and footage from the previous year being shown of his nephew Matthew, the son of local gym owner B.J. Annis and sister Georgia, who was a teenager training to be a third generation Hart family member in the business, and who suddenly became ill with a rare disease and died in the summer of 1996. The irony of Hart talking about how suddenly life can end was a weird jolt, not unlike the footage, looking down, from the catwalk 90 feet above the floor at Kemper Arena, where everyone is forced to leave the fantasy world again to see exactly what the last seconds of Hart's life looked like.
The story about the Survivor Series in Montreal was repeated, with Martha and Bret saying he wanted to leave but was trapped by his WWF contract. The WWF has, at least since his death, maintained Hart was given the option of leaving but chose to stay, trying to use that as evidence that even his own brother didn't think what happened at Survivor Series was that big a deal. From my own knowledge of the situation as things went down during this period, which is pretty detailed, Hart felt trapped between doing the right thing for loyalty to Bret, while doing the right thing for his career and family. He felt his options were to quit wrestling or return to the WWF, and like it or not, pro wrestling was how he made a very good living to provide for his family. I don't believe the option was ever given to him of basically giving back more six months of income as a penalty, but if it had, I also don't think it was a decision he would have wanted to make. He was not as vocal about the incident at the time as Davey Boy Smith was and didn't push as hard for a release. Smith was allowed out of his contract provided he pay the WWF a $150,000 fine--which was later negotiated down to $100,000, half of which WCW agreed after the fact to pay). It was during this period that McMahon threatened Bret with a lawsuit claiming by discussing this situation with Owen he was tampering with his contracted personnel. To soothe Owen's feelings, he was promised a huge push as the company's new Canadian superstar and his career would skyrocket with Bret not there. He was also given a raise from $250,000 per year to $400,000 for the remaining years of his contract. That promised status never materialized for a variety of factors probably most importantly Shawn Michaels' initial refusal to drop the European title to him. Then, before a headline program could ever get started, Michaels suffered a career ending injury. In the storyline, and Hart came back to the WWF for the specific purpose of getting back at Michaels for Montreal (the decision to make McMahon a heel character based on Montreal came about a month later and by that point it was clear Austin should be the one he was married to). He wound up on the short end of a feud with Helmsley, and didn't get over to the degree it was thought. He was then overshadowed by Rock in his next role as co-leader of The Nation, and largely fell into the middle of the cards where he wound up paired with Jarrett in a tag team of good workers in the ring built around Debra as the star.
The last year of his career was portrayed as him mainly saying no to various sexual angles. There were incidents described of suggestions of Goldust sticking his hands down his pants, and of Debra rubbing his crotch, and the more well known angle where he'd have a "crush" on Debra, causing a rift between himself and Jeff Jarrett, all of which he turned down. It was portrayed as him going on the catwalk to do a stunt that he clearly didn't want to do, was because of pressure he'd put on himself for saying "no" to so many angles. His mother described the final time she saw him alive, as him being so disgusted with the direction of the business that when wrestling was brought up, he said he no longer wanted to talk about it.
The aftermath of the death, such as not stopping the show, airing the funeral footage on Raw (and some funeral footage and grave side footage does air in this piece) is not gone into, perhaps not to detract the viewers from what the producers felt was the most powerful message the movie should send. McMahon, who was not made a focal point of this piece, nor was he interviewed for it, although he appears in several clips either from the filming of "Shadows" or various news clips, comes off badly when they air a confrontation where he snapped at a reporter in St. Louis the day after Hart's death when she simply asked about why there was no back-up safety wire on his rigging device.
If you're looking for more answers as to what really happened to cause Hart's death, there are none. Nor are any potential answers even hinted. If you're looking for something to remind yourself of how great a performer this man who died prematurely was, as one would expect an A&E bio to focus on, you'll be disappointed. But this is still a must-see. Behind all the headlines and media posturing at the time, words and lawsuits back-and-forth that are still ongoing, bitterness, passion and even deceit, comes the most basic of reality that after everyone else has moved on, a few people, who have been largely forgotten in the five months since this has happened, will never, even for a moment, achieve their life-long dream of someday being a normal family.
The first preliminary round of the 32-man RINGS World Mega Battle Open tournament King of Kings on 10/28 at Tokyo Yoyogi Gym II ended with four men advancing to the finals, Brazilians Renato Babalu and Antonio Noguiera, along with former U.S. Olympic Greco-roman wrestler Dan Henderson and RINGS regular Ilioukhine Mikhail.
The first of three tournament shows, before an announced sellout crowd of 4,520 (some reports have the real number pegged at closer to 3,600), where the ultimate winner gets $223,000, was the first of two preliminary nights of 16-man tournaments with two rounds. The first two nights each end with four men advancing to a one-night eight-man tournament final in Tokyo in February.
The second tournament takes place 12/22 in Osaka. While there were many fighters with some good credentials, the tournament thus far has been plagued by a lack of fighters with superstar name value.
Babalu reached the finals with an armbar submission on RINGS regular and former Olympic wrestler Grom Zaza of Georgia (that's Soviet Georgia, not Atlanta) in 1:11 of the second five minute round (matches are fought with two five minute rounds with them going to the judges if no submission or knockout is rendered) and a decision win over another RINGS regular, Lee Hasdell of England.
Nogueira was most impressive scoring two quick submissions, beating frequent RINGS headliner Valentijn Overeem in 1:51 with an armbar and following with a win over Russian Iouri Korchikin. Korchikin's opponent, Allister Overeem, was a last second replacement for one of the tournament favorites, Gilbert Yvel who apparently was there and injured just before fight time (which may very well be true in this instance but 90% of the time something like that is announced it is usually a last minute money problem). Yvel holds wins this year over both Semmy Schiltt and Tsuyoshi Kohsaka. Nogueira, said to be the best ground technician in the tournament, beat Korchikin with an armbar in 40 seconds.
Henderson, who represented the United States in both the 1992 and 1996 Olympics at 181 pounds in Greco-roman wrestling and remains active as a world class wrestler today, has never lost an MMA rules match including winning tournaments in both the UFC and in Brazil (his lone loss in this genre was in a pure submission rules match to Frank Shamrock in 40 seconds), knocked out Gogiteze Bakouri in 2:17 with a knee and followed winning a decision over RINGS regular and former UWFI pro wrestler Hiromitsu Kanehara. Kanehara in his preliminary round had ended the long winning streak of UFC regular Jeremy Horn (I believe it was something like a 25 match winning streak although that streak was under different rules than this match), who would have had a pretty substantial size edge on the 5-6, 208-pound Kanehara (Horn is 6-2 and 230 pounds), with a victory via decision in what was called a very close fight.
Mikhail defeated Justin McCulley, who has done some pro wrestling for the UFO organization as well as worked indies in California (Justin Sane) with a footlock in 4:48, and followed beating another pro wrestler, Minneapolis indie Brad Kohler (who had Road Warrior Animal, a pro wrestling legend in Japan, as his second), with an armbar in 2:16. Kohler, coming off one of the most devastating knockout wins in UFC history on 9/24, scored the biggest "name" win of his shoot career in the first round beating Yoshihisa Yamamoto with a cross face submission across the nose in just 1:57 after doing heavy damage, including possibly breaking Yamamoto's ribs, with body punches.
Horn and Kohler were both booked through Monte Cox, the Extreme Challenge promoter who also acted as a judge, which was controversial in itself as he judged matches involving his own fighters including ruling Horn vs. Kanehara as a draw. Both worked the previous UFC show, and there was apparently an informal talent trade type of allowance made in that they worked this tournament and in exchange, RINGS President Akira Maeda allowed Kohsaka to work the Japanese UFC PPV show on 11/14 (Maeda had allowed Kohsaka to work previous UFC shows, but none were in the Japanese market).
Aaron Alvarado Nieves, who wrestled under the name Brazo Cibernetico and had gained his most fame in the early 80s as Robin Hood of Los Arqueros, passed away on the late afternoon of 10/27 from acute pancreatitis.
Alvarado, who was 33, was hospitalized five days earlier when his pancreas shut down and immediately was labeled in grave condition. There were no immediate hints as to what caused the disease, which in most cases is caused by either gallstones or alcohol abuse. In about 15 percent of the cases the cause is unknown. His funeral was held the next afternoon in Mexico City, attended by all his family members except his most famous brother (who couldn't get back from Acapulco, where he was wrestling, in time).
As the son of one of the biggest stars in the history of Mexican pro wrestling, Black Shadow, who was also known as Alejandro Cruz, he was part of perhaps the largest pro wrestling family in existence, with about a dozen brothers who wrestled in Mexico, the most famous of them being Super Porky, Brazo de Plata. Many of whom married woman wrestlers. He followed his older brothers, who became one of Mexico's most famous trios in history, Los Brazos (Brazo de Oro & Brazo de Plata & El Brazo) into wrestling, and had his first pro match at the age of 13, back in 1979. Unlike other younger brothers, he didn't take the Brazo moniker, and instead was part of a high flying team called Los Arqueros, which means The Archers, with Danny Boy and Lasser, a comedy team aimed at young children. On January 21, 1990, they became the first comedy team ever to win the Mexican National trios championships when they defeated Los Temerarios (Black Terry & Jose Luis Feliciano & Shu El Guerrero in Mexico City, holding them until August 17, 1990 when they lost them to Los Thundercats, Leono & Tigro & Pantro. After losing his Robin Hood mask, he wrestled for several years as Super Atomo, before losing his mask and finally donning the Brazo name. His final match was 10/17 teaming with Rocky Santana & Kid Flash vs. Danny Boy & Gallego & Bronco in Tlalnepantla. He had three sons, the youngest, Robin, named after his first wrestling character, who is now 10, is interested in becoming a third generation wrestler.
He was rushed to El Hospital de Urgencias de la Villa in Mexico City on 10/22 when his pancreas shut down.
In a semi-shoot angle, after Vader captured his second Triple Crown world championship in All Japan on 10/30 at the company's 27th Anniversary show at Budokan Hall, the foreign wrestlers in the company began a push to get Vader elected Pro Wrestling MVP.
Vader this past year won the Triple Crown twice along with the Champion Carnival tournament, and headlined before the biggest crowd in All Japan history. The official Japanese media pro wrestling awards are highly political and structured. A foreign wrestler can't win the MVP award, much like a junior heavyweight wrestler can't, nor can a junior heavyweight match, no matter how good, win the Match of the Year award. In addition, the politics dictate that the awards are spread around the various companies. There is little doubt that Vader was the MVP of Japan this year, because his joining the company, providing Mitsuharu Misawa and Kenta Kobashi with a new main event opponent, was the biggest thing of the year and kept the company from falling even farther at the box office, particularly after the death of Shohei Baba and the fact that Toshiaki Kawada missed most of the year with injuries.
Vader was given the title in 12:12 in the main event of the show using a power bomb as the finish. Vader used three released german suplexes and two splashes early for near falls. Misawa came back with two german suplexes of his own and also hit his elbow suicida, a tope ending with an elbow smash. Vader power bombed Misawa outside the ring, to set up a pin attempt. Misawa came back with a missile dropkick and his Tiger driver finisher, but Vader kicked out, before Vader came back with the power bomb to end what was reported as a great show.
Before the match, Motoko Baba, holding a photo of her husband, along with Stan Hansen, Akira Taue and Misawa came to ringside for a ceremony honoring the company's anniversary and Baba, who started what was one of the most successful pro wrestling companies in history back in 1972. At that point they announced the teams for the annual World Tag League tournament, the traditional highlight tour of the year, which this year opens 11/13 at Korakuen Hall with the finals on 12/3 at Budokan Hall.
On paper, it appears the current Double Tag Team champions, Kenta Kobashi & Jun Akiyama, who retained their titles in the previous match beating Yoshihiro Takayama & Takao Omori in 14:54 when Kobashi pinned Takayama after a lariat, would be favored to repeat last year's win. The other teams will be Misawa & Yoshinari Ogawa, Takayama & Omori, Tamon Honda & Masao Inoue, Taue & Hansen, Johnny Ace & Mike Burton (formerly Bart Gunn), Vader & Johnny Smith and Gary Albright & Wolf Hawkfield.
Due to some computer problems from the weekend, the Monday night ratings for 11/1 were unavailable at press time.
We also don't have much in the way of details on the Thursday ratings for 10/28 other than Smackdown doing a 4.3 and Thunder doing a 2.2.
For the weekend numbers, Livewire did a 1.8, Superstars did a 1.9 and Sunday Night Heat did a 2.78. The Heat number was a significant drop from the normal figure which has been in the mid-3s to mid-4s in recent weeks. The HUT levels (number of people watching television overall at that hour) was not down from usual levels so that eliminates the fewer people watching TV because of Halloween explanation for that rating. WCW Saturday Night was just above its record low levels doing a 1.4.
It was clearly bad news for ECW on 10/29, as its audience dropped 34% from the previous two weeks' high water marks, doing an 0.79 rating and 1.4 share. There's no real explanation, as it opened with about a 30% lower audience than the show has opened with the previous few weeks. It also declined slightly after its first quarter peak as the show went on, which is becoming typical for ECW (it's now three straight weeks with the same audience declining from the first quarter pattern) but is unusual among wrestling shows that go unopposed by another wrestling show. Even WCW Saturday Night, the least talked about wrestling show every week, generally has the audience grow throughout the show. For the first time, it was also not the highest rated show on TNN for the night, as the Professional Bull Riding world championships that aired from 10 p.m. to midnight did an 0.96. RollerJam, which followed ECW, did an 0.60.
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Fax messages can be sent to the Observer 24 hours a day at 408-244-3402. Phone messages can be left 24 hours a day at 408-244-2455. E-mails should be sent to Dave [[email protected]](mailto:[email protected]). You can also leave major show poll results or send live show reports to either number or the e-mail address. At this point in time, when it comes to Tuesday night shows on deadline, we'd prefer phone calls or fax messages. We are always looking for reports on live shows from the major offices, particularly WWF and WCW house show reports and Tuesday night taping reports immediately after the shows so we can get the news and results from the tapings into the next issue. If you are planning on attending a Tuesday night show, please let us know in advance and we'll hold up our deadline if we know in advance we'll be getting a report on the show.
For the most up-to-date wrestling information, we have several daily updates on the Wrestling Observer Hotline (900-903-9030/99 cents per minute in the United States; 900-451-4166/$1.49 per minute in Canada; 0906-829-9890/60 pence per minute in the United Kingdom). Children under 18 need parents permission before calling. I'm on option one. Bruce Mitchell is on option two. Georgiann Makropolous (Sunday and Monday) and Steve Beverly (Tuesday through Saturday) are on option three. Bryan Alvarez is on option four and option six. Mike Mooneyham (Sunday through Wednesday) and Don Laible (Thursday through Saturday) are on option five. The Smackdown report is up every Wednesday morning on option six.
New message schedule is: Monday--Meltzer on one, Mooneyham on five; Tuesday--Mitchell on two (Raw report), Beverly on three, Alvarez on four (Nitro report); Wednesday--Meltzer on one, Alvarez on four and six (Smackdown report); Thursday--Mitchell on two, Laible on five (Interviews with wrestlers); Friday--Meltzer on one, Alvarez on four (Smackdown and Thunder report); Saturday--Mitchell on two, Beverly on three; and Sunday--Makropolous on three, Alvarez on four.
For PPV coverage, I'm on option seven approximately 20 minutes after the completion of the show. We run down the major angles and results before getting into the details of the show. There are usually option eight reports up later the evening to get a different perspective. The reports stay up through the next PPV event.
Upcoming shows covered will be 11/17 ECW November to Remember, 11/14 WWF Survivor Series (option seven only), 11/14 UFC Japan (option eight only with brief results), 11/19 UFC Japan (option seven report after show airs in U.S.); and 11/21 WCW Mayhem.
For back issues of the Observer, the "Wrestling Observer Index" lists almost every issue in our history going back 17 years with the major headline stories noted is available for $15 from Grant Zwarych, 151 Hart Ave., Peterborough, ONT K9J 5C5 and virtually every back issue from 1983-90 is available from him and most issues from 1991-present are available from us at $4 each. If you are ordering back issues from us, please denote on the envelope back issues to insure the proper response.
We are also working with Powerbomb Publishing (www.powerbomb.com) to re-issue some of the most popular Wrestling Observer publications of the past. We have the book "Tributes," which may still be the best book ever written on pro wrestling, featuring lengthy obituaries on Bruiser Brody, Andre the Giant, Junkyard Dog, Brian Pillman, Louie Spicolli, Dick the Bruiser, Buddy Rogers, Kerry Von Erich, Fritz Von Erich, Boris Malenko, Art Barr, Eddie Gilbert, John Studd, Ray Stevens, Dick Murdoch and Jerry Graham for $25. We have 1987, 1988, 1989 and 1990 Observer Yearbooks for $15. We have 1983, 1984 and 1986 Observer Yearbooks for $12. We also have the 1986 "Wrestling Observer Who's Who in Pro Wrestling" for $20. For each book order, add $4 for postage and handling in North America. For the rest of the world, add $6 for surface mail or $14 for airmail. Payments should be made to "Powerbomb" at P.O. Box 1523, Carrboro, NC 27510.
Wrestling Observer Live on the internet airs Monday through Friday from 6 to 8 p.m. Eastern time, 3 to 5 p.m. Pacific time, 11 p.m. in the United Kingdom and 7 a.m. in Japan on the eyada.com sports channel. There are also replay shows throughout the day and you can check out the most recent show 24 hours a day in archives at your convenience.
Bryan Alvarez and myself run down the latest news at the start of the show and we usually have guests the remainder of the show and take listener and reader phone calls and e-mails. Even if you don't have access to a computer, you can call in to discuss anything regarding pro wrestling or mixed martial arts with us every day toll free between those hours at 1-877-392-3200 (1-877-eyada-00) or you can e-mail questions for the show to Dave [[email protected]](mailto:[email protected]).
For those in the Phoenix area, we're on KDUS (1060 AM) every Wednesday morning at 10:10 a.m. for the rest of the hour taking listeners phone calls and talking about the latest wrestling news on Jeff Kennedy's "Players Club" show.
11/5 Seikendo Yokohama Bunka Gym (Sayama vs. Otsuka)
11/7 ECW November to Remember PPV Buffalo Bert Flickenger Center (Dreamer & Raven & Sandman vs. Rhino & Credible & Storm)
11/7 Michinoku Pro tag team tournament finals Sendai New World Tennis Club
11/8 WWF Raw is War State College, PA Bryce Jordan Center
11/8 WCW Nitro Indianapolis Conseco Fieldhouse
11/9 WWF Smackdown tapings Baltimore Arena
11/10 WCW Thunder Fort Wayne, IN War Memorial Auditorium (Sting vs. Hart)
11/13 All Japan Worlds Strongest Tag League opening night Tokyo Korakuen Hall
11/13 ECW TNN tapings Binghamton, NY Broome County Arena
11/14 WWF Survivor Series Detroit Joe Louis Arena (Helmsley vs. Austin vs. Rock)
11/14 UFC Japan PPV (air date on PPV in U.S. is 11/19) Tokyo Bay NK Hall (Randleman vs. Williams)
11/15 WWF Raw is War Pittsburgh Civic Arena
11/15 WCW Nitro Little Rock, AR Alltel Arena
11/16 WWF Smackdown tapings Cincinnati Gardens
11/18 ECW Chicago, IL Aragon Ballroom
11/19 WCW Cleveland State University Convocation Center (Goldberg vs. Luger)
11/20 WWF Toronto Skydome
11/21 WCW Mayhem PPV Toronto Air Canada Center (WCW title tournament finals)
11/21 Dream Stage Entertainment Pride Eight Japan only PPV Yokohama Arena (Enson Inoue vs. Kerr)
11/21 WWF Montreal Molson Center
11/22 WWF Raw is War Buffalo Marine Midland Arena
11/22 WCW Nitro Auburn Hills, MI The Palace
11/23 FMW Anniversary show Yokohama Arena (Tanaka vs. Fuyuki)
11/23 WWF Smackdown tapings Rochester, NY Blue Cross Arena
11/26 WWF San Jose Arena
11/27 WWF San Francisco Cow Palace
11/27 ECW Philadelphia ECW Arena
11/28 Pancrase Osaka Namihaya Dome (Kondo vs. Schiltt)
11/29 WWF Raw is War Los Angeles Staples Arena
11/29 WCW Nitro Denver Pepsi Center
11/30 WWF Smackdown Anaheim, CA Arrowhead Pond
12/2 WCW Thunder Topeka, KS Expocentre
12/3 All Japan Real World Tag League tournament finals Tokyo Budokan Hall
12/4 WWF New York Madison Square Garden
12/5 WCW Chicago United Center (Goldberg vs. Luger)
10/24 Dayton, OH (NWA Ohio West Virginia): Super Hentai won three-way over Shirley Doe and Vince Viper, Awesome Arpin b Goonberg, Doink the Clown b Lord Zoltan-DQ, Logan Caine b Wife Beater, Savannah Slim b T.Rantula, Bushwhackers b Big Neil the Real Deal & Bigg Playa
10/26 Mexico City Arena Coliseo (EMLL): Mascarita Magica & Ultimo Dragoncito b Pequeno Pierroth & Fierito, La Diabolica & Amapola b Flor Metalica & Lady Apache, Solar & Solar II & Olimpus b El Hijo del Gladiador & Virus & Super Cacao, Brazo de Oro & Tigre Blanco & Astro Rey Jr. b Karloff Lagarde Jr. & Halcon Negro Jr. & Valentin Mayo, Rayo de Jalisco Jr. & Tinieblas Jr. & Ringo Mendoza b Black Warrior & Blue Panther & Cien Caras
10/27 Fukushima (All Japan - 1,800): Masao Inoue b Takeshi Morishima, Tsuyoshi Kikuchi & Haruka Eigen & Masa Fuchi b Tamon Honda & Rusher Kimura & Mitsuo Momota, Daisuke Ikeda & Jinsei Shinzaki b Maunukea Mossman & Jun Izumida, Johnny Smith & Mike Burton & Johnny Ace b Yoshihiro Takayama & Takao Omori & Satoru Asako, Akira Taue & Stan Hansen b Gary Albright & Giant Kimala II, Kenta Kobashi & Jun Akiyama & Kentaro Shiga b Mitsuharu Misawa & Yoshinari Ogawa & Masahito Kakihara
10/27 Koriyama (Michinoku Pro - 384): Chaparita Asari b Yuka Nakamura, Tiger Mask & Kendo b Yoshikazu Taru & Suwa-DQ, Fake Naniwa & Sasuke the Great b Minoru Fujita & Gran Hamada, Magnum Tokyo & Masaaki Mochizuki & Great Sasuke b Curry Man & Cima & Sumo Dandy Fuji
10/27 Toyohashi (Big Japan): Masayoshi Motegi & Fantastik b Kato Kung Lee Jr. & Ryuji Ito, Tomoaki Honma & Ryuji Yamakawa b Daisuke Sekimoto & Daikokubo Benkei, Mike Samples & Mens Teioh b Abdullah the Butcher & Black Samples, Winger b Kamikaze, Shadow WX b Shunme Matsuzaki
10/27 Jeffersonville, IN (NWA Ohio Valley Championship Wrestling): Chris Alexander b Scotty Sabre-DQ, Flash b Low Rider, Jebediah b Mr. Black, Jason Lee & Rip Rogers b American Eagle & B.J. Payne, The Damaja & Russ McCullough b Stefan Gamlin & Flash, Rob Conway & Bull Buchanan b Trailer Park Trash & Rico Constantino
10/27 Glen Burnie, MD (Maryland Championship Wrestling - 900): Gregory Martin b 2 Dope, Quinn Nash b Adam Flash to win MCW cruiserweight title, Julio Fantastico b Dino Divine, Romeo Valentino b Danny Rose, 2 Dope & Sydeswype b Martin & Qeenan Creed, Valentino b Bruiser to win MCW title, Gillberg & Andy Blacksmith b Earl the Pearl & Rich Myers
10/28 Tokyo Yoyogi Gym II (RINGS World Mega Battle Open tournament A block - 4,520 sellout): Lee Hasdell b Lavazanov Ashmed, Renato Babalu b Grom Zaza, Iouri Korchikin b Gilbert Yvel, Antonio Nogueira b Valentijn Overeem, Hiromitsu Kanehara b Jeremy Horn, Dan Henderson b Gogiteze Bakouri, Ilioukhine Mikhail b Justin McCulley, Brad Kohler b Yoshihisa Yamamoto, Babalu b Hasdell, Nogueira b Korchikin, Henderson b Kanehara, Mikhail b Kohler
10/28 San Diego (WCW Thunder - 5,091/1,451 paid): Juventud Guerrera NC Evan Karagis, Maestro (Rob Kellum) b Prince Iaukea, Dean Malenko & Perry Saturn b Silver King & Dandy, Stevie Ray b Curly Bill, Konnan & Eddie Guerrero & Billy Kidman b David Taylor & Chris Adams & Steve Regal, Lash Leroux b Chavo Guerrero Jr., Berlyn b Jerry Flynn, Buff Bagwell b Scotty Riggs, Chris Benoit b Sid Vicious-DQ, Evan Karagis & Madusa b Lash Leroux & Mona, Berlyn b Iaukea, Disco
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